Selected papers of Alfred Gierer and Hans Meinhardt

Gierer, A. (1977a). Biological features and physical concepts of pattern formation exemplified by hydra. Curr. Top. Dev. Biol. 11, 17-59.

Gierer, A. (1977b). Physical aspects of tissue evagination and biological form. Quarterly Rev. Biophys. 10, 529-593.

Gierer,A, (1981a). Generation of biological patterns and form: Some physical, mathematical, and logical aspects. Prog. Biophys. molec. Biol. 37, 1-47. [PDF]

Gierer, A. (1981b). Development of projections between areas of the nervous system. Cybernetics 42, 69-78.

Gierer, A. (1983). Model for the retino-tectal projection. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 218, 77-93.

Gierer, A. (1987). Directional cues for growing axons forming the retinotectal projection. Development 101, 479-489. [PDF]

Gierer, A (1988). Biological Pattern Formation and Physico-Chemical Laws. In: Synergetics and Dynamic Instabilities [PDF]

Gierer, A. (1998). Possible involvement of gradients in guidance of receptor cell axons toward their target position on the olfactory bulb. Europ. J. Neurosci. 10, 388-391.

Gierer, A. (2012). The Hydra model - a model for what? Int. J. Dev. Biol., 56, 437-445 [PDF]

Gierer, A. and Meinhardt, H. (1972). A theory of biological pattern formation. Kybernetik 12, 30-39. [PDF]

Gierer, A. and Müller, C.M. (1995). Development of layers, maps and modules. Cur. Opin. Neurobiol. 5, 91-97.

Koch, A.J. and Meinhardt, H. (1994). Biological pattern-formation - from basic mechanisms to complex structures. Rev. Modern Physics 66, 1481-1507. [PDF]

Meinhardt, H. (1976). Morphogenesis of lines and nets. Differentiation 6, 117-123. [PDF]

Meinhardt, H. (1978). Space-dependent cell determination under the control of a morphogen gradient. J. theor. Biol. 74, 307-321 [PDF] .

Meinhardt, H. (1982). Models of biological pattern formation. Academic Press, London [PDF]

Meinhardt, H. (1982). The role of compartmentalization in the activation of particular control genes and in the generation of proximo-distal positional information in appendages. Amer.Zool. 22, 209-220. [PDF]

Meinhardt, H. (1983a). Cell determination boundaries as organizing regions for secondary embryonic fields. Dev. Biol 96, 375-385. [PDF]

Meinhardt, H. (1983b). A boundary model for pattern formation in vertebrate limbs. J. Embryol. exp. Morphol. 76, 115-137. [PDF]

Meinhardt H. (1983c). A model for the prestalk/prespore patterning in the slug of the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. Differentiation 24,191-202 [PDF] .

Meinhardt, H. (1983). A bootstrap model for the proximodistal pattern formation in vertebrate limbs. J. Embryol. exp. Morphol. 76, 139-146 [PDF] .

Meinhardt, H. (1985). Mechanisms of pattern formation during development of higher organisms: a hierarchical solution of a complex problem. Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 89, 691-699 [PDF] .

Meinhardt, H. (1986a). Hierarchical inductions of cell states: a model for segmentation in Drosophila. J. Cell Sci. Suppl. 4, 357-381. [PDF]

Meinhardt, H. (1986b). Models of segmentation. In: Somites in developing embryos (R.Bellairs, D.A.Edie, J.W. Lash, Edts), Nato ASI Series A, Vol 118, pp 179-189, Plenum Press, New York [PDF]

Meinhardt, H. (1989) Models for positional signalling with application to the dorsoventral patterning of insects and segregation into different cell types. Development (Supplement) 169-180 [PDF]

Meinhardt, H. (1993). A model for pattern-formation of hypostome, tentacles, and foot in hydra: how to form structures close to each other, how to form them at a distance. Dev. Biol. 157, 321-333 [PDF]

Meinhardt, H. (1994). Biological pattern-formation - new observations provide support for theoretical predictions. Bioessays 16, 627-632.

Meinhardt, H. (1995). Growth and patterning - dynamics of stripe formation. Nature 376, 722-723.

Meinhardt, H. (1998). Models for the formation of netlike structures. In: Vascular Morphogenesis: In Vivo, In Vitro and In Sapiente, (C.D. Little, V. Mironov and E. H. Sage, Edts), pp. 147-172. Birkhäuser, Boston, Base, Berlin

Meinhardt, H. (1999). Orientation of chemotactic cells and growth cones: Models and mechanisms. J. Cell Sci. 112, 2867-2874. [PDF]

Meinhardt, H. (2001). Organizer and axes formation as a self-organizing process. Int. J. Dev. Biol. 45, 177-188 [PDF]

Meinhardt,H (2002). The radial-symmetric hydra and the evolution of the bilateral body plan: an old body became a young brain. BioEssays 24, 185-191. [PDF]

Meinhardt, H. (2003). The Algorithmic Beauty of Sea Shells. 3rd enlarged edition Springer, Heidelberg, New York (with PC - software on an enclosed  CD) (more information) .

Meinhardt, H. (2004). Out-of-phase oscillations and traveling waves with unusual properties: the use of three-component systems in biology. Physica D, 199,264-277 [Reprint PDF].

Meinhardt, H. (2004). Different strategies for midline formation in bilaterians. Nat Rev Neurosci 5,502-510 [PDF]

Meinhardt, H. (2006). From observations to paradigms; the importance of theories and models. An interview with Hans Meinhardt (Richard Gordon and Lev Beloussov). Int. J. Dev. Biol. 50,103-111 [PDF].

Meinhardt, H. (2006). Primary body axes of vertebrates: Generation of a near-Cartesian coordinate system and the role of Spemann-type organizer. Dev. Dyn. 235,2907-2919 [reprint PDF]

Meinhardt, H. (2007). Computational modeling of epithelial patterning. Curr Opin Genet Dev 17,272-280 [PDF].

Meinhardt, H. (2008) Models of biological pattern formation: from elementary steps to the organization of embryonic axes Curr. Top. Dev. Biol. 81,1-63 [reprint PDF]

Meinhardt, H. (2009). Models for the generation and interpretation of gradients. CSH Perspect. Biol. doi: 10.1101/cshperspect.a001362 [link to PDF]

Meinhardt, H. (2012). Turing’s theory of morphogenesis of 1952 and the subsequent discovery of the crucial role of local self-enhancement and long-range inhibition. Interface Focus doi:10.1098/rsfs.2011.0097 [PDF]

Meinhardt, H. (2012). Modeling pattern formation in hydra - a route to understand essential steps in development. Int. J. Dev. Biol. 56, 447-462; doi: 10.1387/ijdb.113483hm [PDF]

Meinhardt, H. (2012). Modeling pattern formation in hydra. Supplementary material for the paper above [PowerPoint presentation]


Meinhardt, H. (2015). Dorsoventral patterning by the Chordin-BMP pathway: a unified model from a pattern-formation perspective for Drosophila, vertebrates, sea urchins and Nematostella. Dev. Biol. [reprint PDF]


Meinhardt, H (2015). Models for patterning primary embryonic body axes: the role of space and time. Semin. Cell Dev. Biol. doi:10.1016/j.semcdb.2015.06.005 [reprint]


Meinhardt, H. de Boer, P.A.J. (2001). Pattern formation in Escherichia coli: A model for the pole-to-pole oscillations of Min proteins and the localization of the division site. PNAS 98, 14202-14207 [PDF] .

Meinhardt, H. and Gierer, A. (1974). Applications of a theory of biological pattern formation based on lateral inhibition. J. Cell Sci. 15, 321-346. [PDF]

Meinhardt, H. and Gierer,A (1980). Generation and regeneration of sequences of structures during morphogenesis. J. theor. Biol. 85, 429-450.

Meinhardt, H. and Gierer, A. (2000). Pattern formation by local self-activation and lateral inhibition. BioEssays 22, 753-760. [PDF]

Meinhardt, H. and Klingler, M. (1987). A model for pattern formation on the shells of molluscs. J. theor. Biol 126, 63-69. [PDF]

Meinhardt, H., Koch, A.J. and Bernasconi, G. (1998). Models of pattern formation applied to plant development. In: Symmetry in Plants, (D. Barabe and R. V. Jean, Eds), World Scientific Publishing, Singapore, pp. 723-758. [PDF]

In German

Wie Zellen miteinander "reden" um die Strukturbildung eines sich entwickelnden Organismus zu organisieren [PDF]
(it+ti - Informationstechnik und technische Informatik 38, 32-38 (1996), modifiziert)

Strukturbildungsprozesse: Auf- und Abbau von Mustern in der Biologie (Biologie in unserer Zeit, 2001) [PDF]

Strukturbildungsprozesse: Computersimulationen biologischer Musterbildung (Biologie in unserer Zeit, 2001) [PDF]
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